|Roman Z. Morawski, Cezary Niedziński - Application of a Bayesian estimator for identification of edible oils on the basis of spectrophotometric data||247|
|Anatoliy A. Platonov, Łukasz Małkiewicz, Konrad Jędrzejewski - Formal definition and properties of FEB-based ENOB of intelligent cyclic ADC'||267|
|S. Kruchinin, V. Novikov, V. Klepikov - Nonlinear current oscillations in a Josephson junction with fractal radioisotope composites||281|
|Antoni Gondek, Tadeusz Filiciak - The effect of double Venturi's structural parameters on the reinforcement value and flow coeffcient||287|
|Kazimierz Jóźwiak, Janusz Smulko - Methods of quality characterization of foil-based capacitors||301|
|Jozef Petrík, Vojtech Mikloš, Vojtech Špetuch, Tomáš Tompoš - The influence of the ball material on the Brinell hardness||313|
|Jerzy Jakubiec - Linearity error as component of A/D converter uncertainty||329|
|Adam Żuchowski - Linear operation of discrete signal "tracking"||341|
|Andrzej Sikora, Marek Wałecki, Łukasz Karp - Diagnostics of the electromechanical devices operational status with optical fiber vibration sensor||359|
|Salah H. R. Ali, H. H. Mohamed, M. K. Bedewy - µ-Scale CMM: A New Diagnostic Tool of Evolved Dimensional and Geometrical Deviations for Bus Diesel Engine Cylinder||363|
|Dariusz Gutek - Image processing system proposed to be applied in a gastroscopic laboratory||381|
|Sabina Żebrowska-Łucyk - Fifty years of research and academic activities of professor Eugeniusz Ratajczyk||389|
|Krystyna Kostyrko - Review of the book : Waldemar Nawrocki, Introduction to quantum metrology (in Polish)||393|
ABSTRACTS & FULL PAPERS
ROMAN Z. MORAWSKI, CEZARY NIEDZIŃSKI
Warsaw University of Technology,
Faculty of Electrnics and Information Technlogy,
Institute of Radioelectronics
APPLICATION OF A BAYESIAN ESTIMATOR FOR IDENTIFICATION OF EDIBLE OILS ON THE BASIS OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DATA
Spectrophotometric analysis of oil mixtures, containing olive oil, is the subject of this paper. Its objective is to compare a new Bayesian estimator with the constrained least-squares estimator, when applied for estimation of concentrations of components of edible oil mixtures, and to assess its applicability for solving problems of industrial monitoring. The comparison is based on the use of semi-synthetic NIR spectrophotometric data and criteria related to measurement uncertainty.
Keywords: NIR spectrophotometry, chemometrics, Bayesian estimation, olive oil
ANATOLIY A. PLATONOV, ŁUKASZ MAŁKIEWICZ,
Warsaw University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw, Poland,
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
FORMAL DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES OF FEB-BASED ENOB OF INTELLIGENT CYCLIC ADC
The paper presents a new approach to the measurement of effective resolution (effective number of bits - ENOB) of the cyclic A/D converters (CADCs). The core idea of the approach is a direct measurement of ENOB using, as a numerical measure, the number of true bits before the first erroneous bit (FEB) in the code of the sample. The position of FEB is determined by the first non-zero bit in the binary presentation of the conversion error. The FEB-based definition of ENOB is introduced and discussed. The results of simulation evaluations of FEB distributions in sequential cycles of conversion are presented and values of FEB-based ENOB are compared with the conventional ENOB evaluations. The influence of DNL and INL errors of internal A/D converter on directly and conventionally measured values of ENOB is analysed. The proposed method of ENOB measurement is less dependent on the class of the testing signal and can be used for more adequate assessment of actual ADC resolution.
Keywords: A/D resolution, ENOB, intelligent cyclic A/D converters
S. KRUCHININ1, V. NOVIKOV2, V. KLEPIKOV2
1Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, NASU,
2Institute for Rlectrophysics & Radiation Technology, NASU,
NONLINEAR CURRENT OSCILLATIONS IN A JOSEPHSON JUNCTION WITH FRACTAL RADIOISOTOPE COMPOSITES
We present a new form of the Josephson junction with dielectric layer containing radioisotopic inclusions. The presence of additional generators of ionization in a semiconducting material (due to α - particles emitted by radioisotope inclusions) causes the essentially nonequilibrium dispersive characteristics of composite materials. Nonlinear current oscillations in such nonequilibrium Josephson junctions are investigated. It is worth noting that a Josephson junction with fractal layer acquires additional characteristics. Taking into account that the medium is a fractal one, the generalization of the oscillation equation by means of fractional integro-differential operators can be an adequate model of a tunnel junction in this case. An analysis of general modes of linear and nonlinear oscillations in a nonequilibrium fractal Josephson junction is carried out. Such electronic elements can be used for chaotic communication.
ANTONI GONDEK, TADEUSZ FILICIAK
Cracow University of Technology
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
THE EFFECT OF DOUBLE VENTURI'S STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS ON THE REINFORCEMENT VALUE AND FLOW COEFFICIENT
Reinforcement factor of a double Venturi is one of the more important parameters related to sensor shape and structure. The evaluation and the effect of the double Venturi's structural parameters on its value were carried out by means of the regression equation obtained from numerical simulation tests conducted by means of the Fluent program and planned experimental techniques. The presented test results indicate that the largest effect on reinforcement, within the tested field, was the throat diameter of the internal Venturi and the diffuser length of the external Venturi.
The second important parameter of a double Venturi is the flow coeffcient K. The analysis of construction parameters was also carried out by means of the regression equation. The parameters which, when enlarged, cause the reduction in the flow coeffcient (K) range are: the diffuser length of the external Venturi, and the first-degree interaction between the internal diffuser length and the internal Venturi's throat diameter. Simulation test results and conclusions have been supported by experimental results.
Keywords: double Venturi tube, flow-rate measurement, metorological analysis
KAZIMIERZ JÓŹWIAK1, JANUSZ SMULKO2
1ZPR MIFlex S.A., Kutno, Poland
2Gdańsk University of Technology, Department of Optoelectronics and Electronic System
Faculty of Electronics, Telecomunikation and Informatics
Gdańsk, Poland, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
METHODS OF QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF FOIL-BASED CAPACITORS
The quality of aluminium foil-based capacitors is sensitive to various technological parameters within the production process. There are a few methods of their quality assessment that can identify defects inside the wound foil structures, poor metal contacts or bad packing. These methods are often applied at the end of production to monitor the quality of the final products. Only a small fraction of the produced capacitors is checked by a long-lasting procedure of extensive and repeatable charging and discharging. This procedure makes it plausible that some capacitors can fulfil the assumed quality requirements but will deteriorate soon and can cause serious economic losses when used in equipment. Therefore, it is recommended to identify the most informative methods of capacitor quality assessment. This paper investigates the problem by presenting measurement results of the third harmonic index, dielectric loss and acoustic emission in type WXPC capacitors which are widely applied to reduce electromagnetic interference caused by domestic electric equipment.
Keywords: capacitors, nonlinearity, dielectric loss, acoustic emission, partial discharges
JOZEF PETRÍK, VOJTECH MIKLOŠ, VOJTECH ŠPEŤUCH,
Technical University of Košice
Faculty of Metallurgy, Slovakia
THE INFLUENCE OF THE BALL MATERIAL ON THE BRINELL HARDNESS
A Brinell hardness tester with carbide and steel balls was calibrated and thereafter the hardness of ten samples of steel STN 41 1600 was measured by four appraisers. The uncertainty of calibration and of the hardness measurement were calculated. The results obtained with carbide and steel balls were confronted using uncertainty analysis, measurement systems analysis (MSA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired t-test and Z-score.
The calibrated hardness tester is not considered satisfactory because the values of relative expanded uncertainty of calibration (relative maximum permissible error) and maximum error exceed the values permitted by the standard for both balls. The statistically significant difference between the uncertainties and relative maximum error obtained by carbide and steel balls was not confirmed neither at calibration nor at measurement of steel sample hardness. Measurement system analysis confirmed some influence of used ball materials on the results of individual appraisers on the capability of the hardness measurement process (indices %AV, %GRR and ndc) in accordance with the results of the unpaired t-test.
Keywords: calibration, HBS, HBW, uncertainty, t-test, ANOVA, Z-score
Silesian University of Technology
Institute of Measurement Science, Electronics and Control
Poland, e-mail: email@example.com
LINEARITY ERROR AS COMPONENT OF A/D CONVERTER UNCERTAINTY
Analog-to-digital (A/D) converters are basic elements of measuring chains since they deliver measurement data being a carrier of digital information in measurement instruments and systems. Taking into account that the quality of the information depends on accuracy of data, one should evaluate the uncertainty of A/D conversion results. One of the uncertainty component is connected with the linearity error of an A/D converter. This error has to be contained in the uncertainty budget, however, it is possible if the error is described in probabilistic categories. The paper presents a way of obtaining such a kind of description, the basis of which is an analysis of A/D conversion as a quantization process consisting in a comparison of the measured quantity with a standard composed of quanta. The linearity error is treated as an effect of random distortion of quanta. A general model of a quantization result, containing both the quantization error and the error caused by quantum distortion, as well as the error generated by thermal noise, has been described. An analysis of correlation coeffcients between these errors has been performed using the Monte Carlo method. A procedure of uncertainty calculation on the basis of the known error distribution has been presented.
Keywords: A/D converter, quantization, linearity error, correlation coeffcient, error distribution, measurement result model, uncertainty
Szczecin University of Technology
LINEAR OPERATION OF DISCRETE SIGNAL TRACKING
The idea of discrete signal "tracking" action was put into practice many years ago. So-called dot recorders are best examples of its application. The dynamics of the dot-recorder measuring mechanism can be linear and nonlinear. In both cases the recorder mechanisms are stable and their properties can be expressed by static gain (linear case) or certain static characteristics (nonlinear case). One can formulate two crucial questions: are we able to formulate the conditions for acceptable realization of discrete "tracking" action, and, if yes, how big are the tracking action errors if defined conditions are fulfilled. The paper answers both questions in the case of linear dynamics of the recorder mechanism.
Keywords: discrete 'tracking' action, conditions and accuracy of discrete 'tracking' action
ANDRZEJ SIKORA, MAREK WAŁECKI, ŁUKASZ KARP
Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, Wrocław,
Poland, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
DIAGNOSIS OF THE OPERATIONAL STATUS OF ELECTROMECHANICAL
DEVICES WITH AN OPTICAL FIBER VIBRATION SENSOR
In the presented paper a prototype of an optical fiber vibration sensor is described as a tool for diagnosis of machines and electromechanical devices. The application of the optical fiber as a sensor allowed a design of simple construction, where such advantages like electromagnetic noise immunity, galvanic isolation and spark-safety are crucial. Due to those advantages this sensor can be applied in places where installation of an electrical sensor is not possible. The results of preliminary tests and measurements performed on a high voltage transformer and electrical engine confirmed the effectiveness of the sensor.
Keywords: optoelectronics, microsystems, MEOMS, machine diagnostics, vibration measurement
SALAH H. R. ALI1, H. H. MOHAMED2, M. K. BEDEWY3
1National Institute of Standards (NIS), POBox 135, Giza (12211), Egypt
2Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt
3Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza (12613), Egypt
µ-SCALE CMM: A PROPOSED DIAGNOSTIC TOOL BASED ON EVOLVED
DEVIATIONS IN GEOMETRICAL MEASUREMENTS
µ-scale measurements of dimensional and geometrical features of components require an advanced precise and accurate device such as the CMM machine. Evolved changes in the dimensional and geometrical measurements as referred to benchmark values can be employed as a reliable diagnostic tool in monitoring the functional deterioration of mechanical parts that involve working surfaces during their operation. It is evident that excessive wear in a cylinder bore of an internal combustion engine can dramatically affect the quality of performance, the sealing function, the scheme of lubrication, and eventually the service life span of the piston rings and in turn of the engine as a whole.
In this work, precise and accurate measurements of evolved deviations in the diameter, roundness, straightness, and concentricity in a cylinder bore of an air cooled Automotive Diesel Engine using a CMM machine have been carried out and analyzed. The results have been presented, discussed, and interpreted in order to demonstrate making use of them in monitoring the status of the engine during operation. Locations of severe wear occurrence in the cylinder bore are then detected and investigated. The measurements within relevant uncertainties would reflect the quality of engine performance, the suitability of the applied scheduled maintenance plan, and the adverse operating conditions which may have been probably encountered during service life. Thus, in the light of the findings, recommendations can be provided to the engine designer to improve his design regarding changes of material selection and/or surface treatments. Furthermore, an innovative constructional modification may be suggested to homogenize the wear occurrence in the cylinder bore during operation. For instance, a device can be added to the construction in order to cause continuous slow rotation of the cylinder about its geometrical axis while the engine is running, without having to dismantle the components. This may extend the operating life span of the cylinder and in turn reduce the maintenance expenses. In addition, power loss due to friction and wear in the engine may be favorably affected.
Keywords: Dimensional metrology, surface geometry, uncertainty, diesel engine, friction and wear
Lublin University of Technology
Instituite of Computer Science, Poland
IMAGE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROPOSED TO BE APPLIED IN A GASTROSCOPIC LABORATORY
The article presents a way to integrate an endoscope with computer equipment. Software has been proposed to archive and access results of endoscopic tests. The data can be accessed at the hospital area and from outside it. Aside with standard descriptions and conclusions there is also an option to watch pictures and videos recorded during a medical examination. Software for real-time editing of the video material together with the option of applying graphics filters to the watched videos has been proposed for use in endoscopic laboratories.
Keywords: endoscopic tests, real-time processing, system for accessing examination results