|J. Obrzut, J.F. Douglas - Measurement of complex conductivity in carbon nanotube polymer composites under mechanical shear||399|
|A. Latała, R. Z. Morawski - Comparison of LS-type methods for determination of olive oil mixtures of the basis NIR spectral data||409|
|T. Dang - An Iterative Parameter Estimation Method for Observation Models with Nonlinear Constraints||421|
|W. Frączek, J. Mroczka - Optical vortices as phase markers to wave-front deformation measurement||433|
|P. R. Ramos, T. Radil, A. Cruz Serra - Four-Parameter Sine-Fitting Algorithm for Detection and Classification of Transients and Waveform Distortions||441|
|I. Jabłoński, J. Mroczka - The problem of measurement data complexity for example of the respiratory system and recurrent plots analysis||457|
|C. Neus, W. Foubert, Y. Rolian, J. Maes, L. Van Biesen - - Feasibility and challenges of DSL loop make-up identification via single-ended line tests||473|
|M. Catelani, A. Zanobini, L. Ciani - Introduction to the t and chi-square distribution for a more accurate evaluation of measure of the Word Error Rate in Analog-to-Digital Converters||485|
|A. Domańska - Elimination of nonlinearity with discontinuities (of dead zone) from static characteristic of converter||491|
|P. Suchanek, D. Slepicka, V. Haasz - Several approaches to ADC transfer function approximation and their application for ADC non-linearity correction||501|
|I. Bemke, R. Zielonko - Improvement of glass break acoustic signal detection via application of Wavelet Packet Decompositions||513|
|A. Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A. Kowal, L. Lipiński, P. P. M. Steur, R. Dematteis - Intercomparsion of water triple point cells from INTiBS and INRiM||527|
|B. Juroszek - The sources of errors in the oscillometric blood pressure measurements||539|
|S. Ali, M. A. Etman, B. S. Azzam, M. K. Bedewy - Advanced Nanometrology Techniques of Carbon Nanotubes Characterization||551|
|U. Pogliano, B. Trinchera, G. Bosco, D. Serazio - Design of a thermal wattmeter in the audio frequency range||563|
|A. Cataldo, G. Monti, E. De Benedetto, G. Cannazza - A reliable low-cost method for accurate characterization of antennas in the domain||571|
|H. M. Sidiki, M. Amer - Evaluation of CMM for flatness measurements||585|
|M. Poniatowska - Determining the uncertainty of fitting discrete measurement data to a nominal surface||595|
|R. Z. Morawski - Recent activities of international measurement confederation IMEKO||607|
|J. Mindykowski - Exploring new frontiers of instrumentation and methods for electrical and electronic measurement in light of IMEKO TC4 Symposium in Florence, Italy, September 2008||613|
ABSTRACTS & FULL PAPERS
J. OBRZUT, J. F. DOUGLAS
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Polymers Division
MEASUREMENT OF COMPLEX CONDUCTIVITY IN CARBON NANOTUBE POLYMER COMPOSITES UNDER MECHANICAL SHEAR
We measured the complex conductivity of carbon nanotube-polypropylene composites under mechanical shear conditions. In order to determine how flow alters the properties of these complex fluids we constructed a rheo-dielectric test fixture, which allows for the simultaneous in situ measurement of both the frequency dependent complex electrical conductivity and basic rheological properties, such as shearing rate, viscosity, normal stresses. We analyzed the results using Generalized Effective Medium theory. The scaled conductivity of percolated networks compares well with the universal trend showing a power law scaling with frequency. We find that the conductivity percolation concentration (φc) increases with increasing shear rate. For sufficiently high shear rates, the nanocomposite undergoes a transition from a conducting to an insulating state. The shear rate dependence of φc, which gives rise to this transition, conforms well to a model that we introduced to describe this effect.
Keywords: complex conductivity, carbon nanotubes, percolation, composite materials, mechanical shear
AGATA LATAŁA, ROMAN Z. MORAWSKI
Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology
Institute of Radioelectronics
COMPARISON OF LS-TYPE METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF OLIVE OIL MIXTURES ON THE BASIS OF NIR SPECTRAL DATA
The spectrophotometric analysis of oil mixtures, containing olive oil, is the subject of this paper. Its objective is to compare six least-squares-type estimators which are potentially applicable for determination of a selected component of the mixture. The comparison presented is based on the criteria related to measurement uncertainty.
Keywords: least-squares estimators, NIR spectrophotometry, chemometrics, olive oil
University of Karlsruhe
Institut f¨ur Mess- und Regelungstechnik
AN ITERATIVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION METHOD FOR OBSERVATION MODELS WITH NONLINEAR CONSTRAINTS
This article presents a parameter estimation algorithm for observation models with nonlinear constraints. A prominent example that belongs to this category is the continuous auto-calibration of stereo cameras. Here, our knowledge of the relation between the available measurements and the desired parameters is given by a nonlinear implicit constraint equation. An estimation method derived from an Iterated Extended Kalman Filter is designed for this application. Experiments are conducted with synthetic and real data. The proposed algorithm provides very good results and is readily applicable to a wider range of applications.
Keywords: recursive estimation, Kalman filter, stereo vision, self-calibration
WOJCIECH FRĄCZEK, JANUSZ MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Technology
Chair of Electronic and Photonic Metrology
OPTICAL VORTICES AS PHASE MARKERS TO WAVE-FRONT DEFORMATION MEASUREMENT
In this paper a new method to the test deformation of the wave-front of the plane wave is presented. In the method Optical Vortex Interferometry is applied. In the OVI a regular lattice of optical vortices is generated by the interference of three plane waves. The wave-front of one wave is deformed after crossing the measured object. The deformation of the wave-front is measurable because the deformation of vortex lattice structure arises from the wave-front deformation. The record of the positions of the vortex points before and after the object insertion in the optical arrangement is essential. The analysis of the change of vortex points positions, as shown in this paper gives highly precise information about the real deformation of the wave-front caused by the object insertion.
Keywords: optical vortices, interferometry, wave-front
PEDRO M. RAMOS1,2, TOMÁŠ RADIL1, A. CRUZ SERRA1,2
1Instituto de Telecomunicações, Lisbon,
2DEEC, Instituto Suprerior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
FOUR-PARAMETER SINE-FITTING ALGORITHM FOR DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSIENTS AND WAVEFORM DISTORTIONS
This paper describes a new method for detection of some power quality (PQ) disturbances, namely transients and waveform distortions. The proposed algorithm is based on a modified version of the four-parameter sine-fitting algorithm. The sine-fitting algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the power system's voltage signal's fundamental and to extract the transient component of the voltage. The performance of the proposed method is compared with previously developed algorithm and with two commercial PQ analyzers.
Keywords: power quality, sine-fitting algorithms, mathematical morphology, transients, waveform distortions
IRENEUSZ JABŁOŃSKI, JANUSZ MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Technology
Chair of Electronic and Photonic Metrology, Poland
THE PROBLEM OF MEASUREMENT DATA COMPLEXITY, FOR EXAMPLE
OF THE GENERAL MODEL OF THE CENTRAL RESPIRATORY GENERATOR AND RECURRENT PLOTS ANALYSIS
The purpose of this modeling paper is to show and, in some extent, to explore the utility of one nonlinear tool, the recurrence plot, in assessing physiological systems and states, for example of the respiratory system. During investigations, the authors first explore the question of interrelations between regular and disordered processes, implying remarkable influences of noise on rhythmicity of the physiological systems, here: the respiratory system. Next, the signals acquired in the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol model of the central respiratory generator are the basis for data analysis; accordingly to Paydarfar et al., computational studies of the equations (1), whose qualitative behaviour is representative of many excitable system, are able to show phase responses adequate to experimental findings in the animal, in the context of phase resetting of the central respiratory oscillator. The applied topological (qualitative) description and its quantitative measures of complexity document the important sensitivity to temporal variations of the data set compositions.
Keywords: complex systems and data, time-series, nonlinear dynamics, recurrence plots, respiratory system
C. NEUS1, W. FOUBERT1, Y. ROLAIN1, J. MAES2, L. VAN BIESEN1
1Department of Fundamental Electricity and Instrumentation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
2Bell Labs Antwerp, Alcatel-Lucent
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com,
FEASIBILITY AND CHALLENGES OF DSL LOOP MAKE-UP IDENTIFICATION VIA SINGLE-ENDED LINE TESTS
Digital subscriber lines (DSL) offer the possibility to deliver broadband services over the existing telephone network. Yet, before deploying DSL, the subscriber loops must be tested to see if they can support high-speed data services, and at what rate. Single-ended automatic qualification is essential to achieve low-cost deployment of DSL, since it allows loops to be qualified in bulk without human intervention at the customer's location. An even more ambitious challenge is to fully characterize the loop, i.e. to identify its composition completely (number of loop sections, length and cable type of each section). This paper discusses the feasibility and the challenges of loop make-up identification via single-ended measurements.
Keywords: Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL), Single-Ended Line Testing (SELT), reflectometry, near-end reflection, dispersion
M. CATELANI, A. ZANOBINI, L. CIANI
University of Florence, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications
INTRODUCTION TO THE T AND CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION FOR A MORE ACCURATE EVALUATION
OF THE MEASURE OF THE WORD ERROR RATE IN ANALOGTO-DIGITAL CONVERTERS
The word error rate (WER) in an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is the probability of receiving an erroneous code for an input, after correction is made for gain, offset, and nonlinearity errors, and a specified allowance is made for noise. Typical causes of word errors are metastability
and timing jitter of comparators within the ADC .
New statistical techniques which can better integrate what is sustained in the IEEE standard and in  have been proposed. In particular, Student and chi-square distributions have been introduced for a more accurate measurement of the word error rate in the case of n successive observations.
Poznan University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications
Poland, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
ELIMINATION OF NONLINEARITY WITH DISCONTINUITIES (OF THE DEAD ZONE) FROM STATIC CHARACTERISTIC OF CONVERTER
The characteristics of real converters, including sensors, are - to a smaller or larger extent - nonlinear. Nonlinearity may result from the technologies applied to produce the converter or from the type of processing to be realized by the converter. With respect to the mathematical model describing the characteristics, they can be characteristics with smooth nonlinearity or nonlinearity with discontinuities. The author presented the problem of elimination of nonlinearity with discontinuities from the converter characteristic, which appears in the small-value area, i.e. in the dead zone, with a method utilizing the technique of added noise (dither). The properties of a converter with modified characteristic are shown: the ability to process input signals that previously could not be processed because their values were within the dead zone; removal of discontinuities in the output signal within the range of small values.
Keywords: input-output characteristic, dead zone, nonlinear distortion, dither
P. SUCHANEK, D. SLEPICKA, V. HAASZ
Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Prague, Czech Republic
SEVERAL APPROACHES TO ADC TRANSFER FUNCTION APPROXIMATION AND THEIR APPLICATION FOR ADC NON-LINEARITY CORRECTION
The performance of current electronic devices is mostly limited by analog front-end and analog-to-digital converter's (ADC) actual parameters. One of the most important parameters is ADC nonlinearity. The correction of this imperfection can be accomplished in the output data but only if the nonlinearity is well characterized. Many approaches to ADC characterization have been proposed in scientific articles in the last several years. In this paper three different approximations of ADC low-frequency non-linearity (common polynomials, Chebyshev polynomials and Fourier series) were analyzed and the practical applicability, approximation accuracy and noise sensitivity were investigated. The first results of nonlinearity correction were presented, too.
Keywords: analog-to-digital converter, ADC nonlinearity, transfer function approximation, nonlinearity correction
IRENEUSZ BEMKE, ROMUALD ZIELONKO
Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics
Telecommunications and Informatics
email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
IMPROVEMENT OF GLASS BREAK ACOUSTIC SIGNAL DETECTION VIA APPLICATION OF WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION
The main subject of the authors' research are non-contact methods of glass break detection based on analysis of the acoustic signal generated during the event. This problem has essential meaning for modern cost-effective alarm systems, particularly those installed into big buildings. The main diffculties of the matter are: transient, stochastic character of the signal, great number of similar sounds (false signals, mainly accidental glass hits without break) and variability of many parameters (e.g. size and thickness of the glass pane, distance to detector). During research the authors developed a detection algorithm based on Wavelet Transformation (WT) and found some measures allowing to extract distinctive features from the signal and their classification. The obtained detection effciency (>90%) is satisfactory, but immunity against false signals (near to 80%) does not reach the assumed level. Because Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) provides a more detailed analysis in the frequency domain than WT and does better extraction of time-frequency interdependencies of the signals, the authors decide to use it for algorithm improvement.
This paper discusses results of WPD application to improve system performance and to increase the immunity against false signals. In the paper, on the background of a description of the problem, a theoretical basis of the WPD method and results of the investigation of its effectiveness are presented.
Keywords: Wavelet Packet Decomposition, signal analysis, glass breaks detection
A. Szmyrka-Grzebyk1, A. Kowal1, L. Lipiński1,
Peter P. M. Steur2, R. Dematteis2
1Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAN, Wroclaw, Poland
2Institute Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Torino, Italy
INTERCOMPARISON OF WATER TRIPLE POINT CELLS FROM INTIBS AND INRIM
The triple point of water defines the unit of thermodynamic temperature, kelvin, and is the most important fixed point of the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Several international comparisons of cells for the realization of the water triple point were carried out to estimate the temperature values obtained in real conditions at national metrology institutes. A separate bilateral comparison was set up for INTiBS, Poland with INRiM, Italy, as CCT-K7 participant, in order to create a direct reference to CCT-K7 for the Polish institute. Results of the bilateral comparison carried out as EUROMET project no 895 are presented in this paper.
Wroclaw University of Technology
Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Instrumentation
THE SOURCE OF ERRORS IN THE OSCILLOMETRIC BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
This report presents an analysis of the source of errors in the blood pressure measurements which use the oscillometric method. The basis of this method are the blood pressure oscillations in the occluding cuff which are used to evaluate systolic and diastolic pressures. They are found during calculations with the use of fixed constants. These numbers, having a statistical meaning, are the main source of a measuring error. The respective theoretical considerations are presented. Here they have been confirmed by the example of comparison of the measuring results obtained from two different blood pressure devices. During tests the instruments were connected together to the same occluding cuff A statistical method was used for evaluation of the results: the coefficient
of variation and the reliability coefficient.
Keywords: blood pressure measurement, pressure oscillations, measuring error
SALAH H. R. ALI1, M. A. ETMAN2, B. S. AZZAM2,
R. M. RASHAD2, M. K. BEDEWY2
1Engineering and Surface Metrology, National Institute of Standards, Egypt
2Design & Production Eng., Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt
1SalahAli20@yahoo.com , 2KBedewy@yahoo.com
ADVANCED NANOMETROLOGY TECHNIQUES OF CARBON NANOTUBES CHARACTERIZATION
It has become evident that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess exceptionally high physical, mechanical, electrical, and structural properties that made them attractive for researchers to investigate. In this paper, CNTs synthesized by submerged DC arc in deionized water were subjected to six different characterization techniques in order to have an insight into their intrinsic properties. Stages of CNTs growth scenario during their synthesis were captured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Images of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) depicted the spaghetti-like nature of nanotubes sized in the range from 6 to 8 nm diameters with bends and kinks observed. Transmission Electron Diffraction Microscopy (TEDM) images declared the purity of the synthesized CNTs. Also, Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR) spectrum analysis depicted the transmittance and frequency band widths of peaks relevant to the functional groups. In addition, Raman spectrum analysis disclosed the G and D modes with no radial breathing mode (RBM) for a random sample of the synthesized CNTs indicating some defects, strain, oxidation stated of the SWCNTs with the possibility of multiwalled carbon nanotubes existence as well. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) reflected the thermal stability of the synthesized CNTs as they sustained temperatures approaching almost 1000oC. Thus, it can be concluded that the used techniques proved to successfully characterize the synthesized CNTs, so that they can be reasonably nominated for suitable potential application.
Keywords: Nanometrology, CNTs characterization, STM, TEM, TEDM, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, TGA
U. POGLIANO, B. TRINCHERA, G. BOSCO, D. SERAZIO
Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (I.N.RI.M.)
DESIGN OF A THERMAL WATTMETER IN THE AUDIO FREQUENCY RANGE
This paper describes the development of a system for the measurement of power in the audio frequency range. Flexible units operating with a strategy based on the evaluation of rms quantity by a thermal method have been constructed. For each unit of the set-up, measurements and a preliminary characterization have been performed. The main quantities to be measured are two voltages, difference and sum. The difference voltage has been evaluated by means a vectorial voltmeter, instead the sum voltage by means a rms voltmeter. The module of the voltage difference in the acoustic band seems to be lower than 10 µV. Further investigation and results will be extended when all components of the measuring system will be employed together.
A. CATALDO, E. DE BENEDETTO, G. CANNAZZA, G. MONTI
University of Salento
Department of Engineering for Innovation, Italy
A RELIABLE LOW-COST METHOD FOR ACCURATE CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTENNAS IN TIME DOMAIN
In this paper, a time domain-based approach to practical characterization of antennas is presented. The goal is to prove that time domain-based approach, after appropriate processing, represents an accurate and more practicable alternative to the typically used (yet highly expensive) antenna characterization measurements that are performed in anechoic chamber through a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). To this purpose, two commercial antennas, differing in operating frequency band, are considered as significant test-cases. Reflectometric measurements performed in Time Domain (TD) are subsequently transformed in Frequency Domain (FD), and compared with VNA reference measurements directly obtained in anechoic chamber. Results demonstrate that the preliminary choice of an optimal time window is the main factor leading to a substantial enhancement of the overall measurement accuracy, which is comparable to that provided by VNA measurements in anechoic chamber. This demonstrates that a good insight into the antenna characteristics can be obtained even without using highly expensive facilities.
Keywords: Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), antenna measurements, reflection scattering parameter, time domain measurements, frequency domain measurements
H. M. SIDKI, M. AMER
Engineering & Surface Metrology Laboratory, Length & Precision Eng. Division
National Institute for Standards, Egypt
EVALUATION OF CMM FOR FLATNESS MEASUREMENTS
Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a universal measuring instrument in dimensional metrology. However, the CMM has many sources of errors and deviations that affect its precision and accuracy. Unfortunately, the accuracy of flatness measurement by the CMM is not studied which is very important feature in metrology and industry at present time. A method is introduced to evaluate the accuracy of the flatness measurement of the Zeiss CMM based on flatness measurement of an optical flat. The flatnesses of the optical flat are measured by four different techniques using the CMM. Moreover, the effects of CMM head probe's scanning speed and step width on flatness measurements are examined separately in special measuring subroutines. The flatness of the optical flat surfaces are calibrated using Zygo phase shifting interferometer since it is used as reference for this study. The experimental results show that the CMM's probing points technique can be used for accurate measurements of flatness.
Keywords: Flatness measurement, Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), Zygo phase shifting interferometer
Chair of Materials Engineering and Mechanical Technology
Bialystok Technical University
DETERMINING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FITTING DISCRETE MEASUREMENT DATA TO A NOMINAL SURFACE
Coordinate measurements are a source of digital data in the form of coordinates of measurement points with a discrete distribution on the measured surface. Geometric deviations of freeform surfaces are determined at each point as normal deviations of these points from the nominal surface (a CAD model). The calculations are preceded by fitting the measurement data to the CAD model. The relations between the workpiece coordinate system and the coordinate system of the machine are described by the transformation parameters. This paper presents the idea of the process of data fitting with the use of the least square algorithm method as well as the way of determining the uncertainty on the assumption that transformation parameters are subject to a cumulative normal probability distribution. The theoretical issues were verified by experiments carried out on a freeform surface obtained in the milling process and characterized by quasi-random geometric deviations.
Keywords: coordinate measurement, fitting uncertainty, freeform surface