POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Division IV: Engineering Sciences

Committee on Metrology
and Scientific Instrumentation


VOLUME XVI - NUMBER 1/2009 [previous] [next]

CONTENTS

R. Zielonko - Editorial note3
P. Jankowski, B. Dudojć, J. Mindykowski - Simple method of dynamic displacement record of contacts driven by inductive dynamic drive5
G. Lentka, J. Hoja - Analyzer for spectroscopy of low-impedance objects19
M. Lisowski, K. Krawczyk - Insulation resistance influence on high resistance Hamon transfer accuracy33
W. Toczek, M. Kowalewski - Built-in test scheme for detection, classification and evaluation of nonlinearities47
L.Zhou, Y. Shi, J. Tang, Y. Li - Soft Fault Diagnosis in Analog Circuit Based on Fuzzy and Direction Vector61
A. Kuczyński, M. Ossowski - Analog circuits diagnosis using discrete wavelet transform of supply current77
B. Jerzman, W. Kiciński - Kernel Estimation of probability density function: properties and parameters optimization85
M. Catelani, V. L. Scarano, R. Singuaroli, S. Montebugnoli, G. Bianchi, F. Perini - Environmental Testing: Behavior of a Radio receiver Chain Front-end107
S. Cirulo, A. Mariscotti, A. Viacava - A Helmholtz coil for high frequency high field intensity applications117
C. Luque A, N. Björsell - Improved dynamic range for multi-tone signal using model-based pre-distortion129
M.S. Węglowski - Measurement of arc light spectrum in the MAG welding method143
J. Vedral. P. Fexa, J. Svatoš - Methods for economical test of dynamic parameters ADCs161
C. Fosalau, C. Damian, C. Zeta - Pspice model for simulating the giant magnetoimpedance effect in magnetic amorphous wires171
P.P. Capra, C. Cassiago, F. Galliana, M. Astrua - A temperature variable high accuracy 10 kΩ resistor183


ABSTRACTS & FULL PAPERS

p. 3 contents

EDITORIAL NOTE

Dear Readers,

It is my great pleasure to inform you that, by the end of 2008, our journal Metrology and Measurement Systems appeared on the Thomson-Reuters Master Journal List and Science Citation Index Expanded. It is also indexed and abstracted by the databases such as Inspec, Index Copernicus and Google Scholar. Since 2005, both abstracts and full papers have been available on the journal website (www.metrology.pg.gda.pl).
The appearance on the Thomson-Reuters Master Journal List is a sign of international recognition of our journal, and - at the same time - a new challenge to be faced: the necessity to increase the impact factor (IF) and to meet other requirements of international competition among journals. In response to this challenge, we have undertaken several moves: enhancement of the graphical aspect of the journal issues, implementation of a internet-based editorial system, and introduction of the journal on the Meta Press platform of electronic publishing.
The first move has been already accomplished: this first issue of 2009 has appeared in a new graphical form - with a newly designed cover and title page, with re-designed title pages of the papers. This opportunity has been also used for more precise formulation of the Instructions for Authors and Subscription Information on the covers. I believe the introduced changes will contribute to better recognizability of Metrology and Measurement Systems as an important journal in the field of the measurement science and technology, published under auspices of Polish Academy of Sciences.
On the top of formal and technical improvements, we are going to continue our efforts aimed at increasing the scientific quality of the journal, especially by improving the reviewing procedures and increasing the international diversity of the authors. We are going to increase the average number of published articles from 10 to 15 per issue, and - if the number of submissions grows - to increase the number of issues from 4 to 6 per year.
The general mission of our journal is remaining unchanged: to enhance the world-wide exchange of information on the advancements in the field of measurement sciences and technology, with particular attention to the areas where the activity of the other metrology-related journals is insufficient. The main priority is given to supporting the young researchers in their scientific development - by publishing selected research results recorded in their Ph.D. and D.Sc. theses. The substance-related priority is given to IT-based measurement methods and techniques, especially to DSP-based, AI-based and wireless instrumentation. An important element of the journal's mission is the fostering of publication activities in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
I would like to conclude this note by thanking all the Authors of the papers published in Metrology and Measurement Systems during last several years, Members of the International Programme Committee and of the Editorial Board, as well as Reviewers, for excellent cooperation. I would like to thank also Chairman of the IV. Division of the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as Chairman and other Members of the Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation, for their active support of the journal. My special thanks go to Professor Roman Z. Morawski, Chairman of International Programme Committee, for his initiatives and constant support in all the endeavours aimed at the development of the journal, and to Ms. Danuta Czudek-Puchalska, graphic designer, for her design of the new cover.

Romuald Zielonko

Editor-in-chief

p. 5 contents

SIMPLE METHOD OF DYNAMIC DISPLACEMENT RECORD OF CONTACTS DRIVEN BY INDUCTIVE DYNAMIC DRIVE

Piotr Jankowski, Bolesław Dudojć, Janusz Mindykowski

Gdynia Maritime University, Electrical Faculty, Department of Marine Electrical Power Engineering, Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland (boldu@am.gdynia.pl, +48 58 690 1390, keopiotr@am.gdynia.pl, janmind@am.gdynia.pl)

Abstract
Inductive dynamic drive is the main part of ultra-fast hybrid breakers. Its principle of work is based on the Thomson phenomenon, where a coil is powered by pulse current (most often from a bank of capacitors) and whose field induces eddy currents in the coupled disc. As a result the disc is impacted by a significant force causing its movement. In the paper the authors present research results of a new simple optimeter used for recording of ultra-fast displacements of an inductive dynamic drive disk. The presented solution is characterized by very simple construction, a high output signal and relatively good linearity.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 1495kB)
p. 19 contents

ANALYZER FOR SPECTROSCOPY OF LOW-IMPEDANCE OBJECTS

Jerzy Hoja, Grzegorz Lentka

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics Telecommunication and Informatics, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland (hoja@eti.pg.gda.pl, +48 58 347 1487; lentka@eti.pg.gda.pl)

Abstract
The paper presents an analyzer making possible impedance measurements in the range of 1 Ω < |Zx| ≤ 100 MΩ. New solutions of input circuitry and phase-sensitive detection technique of measurement signals were used. The input circuit was designed in the form of a 5-terminal measurement probe, which allows decreasing the influence of parasitic resistance, inductance and capacitance on the accuracy of impedance measurement in a wide frequency range from 1 mHz up to 10 MHz. The probe extracts two signals proportional to current through and voltage across the measured impedance. In order to determine orthogonal parts of the extracted measurement signals in a high frequency subrange 1 MHz - 10 MHz, the undersampling technique was used, allowing phase-sensitive detection using 12-bit ADCs with maximum sampling frequency equal to 10 MHz.

Keywords: impedance measurement, impedance spectroscopy, measurement probe, DSP.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 1334kB)
p. 33 contents

INSULATION RESISTANCE INFLUENCE ON HIGH RESISTANCE HAMON TRANSFER ACCURACY

Michał Lisowski, Krystian Krawczyk

Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Electrical Engineering Fundamentals, Wybrzeże Wyspaiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland (michal.lisowski@pwr.wroc.pl, +48 71 320 2607, krystian.krawczyk@pwr.wroc.pl)

Abstract
Accuracy of high resistance Hamon transfers, used for comparison of standard resistors with the ratios of 1:10 and 1:100, depends mainly on insulation leakage. Analysis of the influence of insulation resistance on the transfers accuracies and description of the method of minimizing the insulation leakage current effect by the usage of double insulation are the subject of this paper.

Keywords: high resistance standards, Hamon transfers, insulation resistance, double insulation, analysis.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 285kB)
p. 47 contents

BUILT-IN TEST SCHEME FOR DETECTION, CLASSIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF NONLINEARITIES

Wojciech Toczek, Michał Kowalewski

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics Telecommunication and Informatics,Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland (toczek@eti.pg.gda.pl, +48 58 347 1657; smithy@eti.pg.gda.pl)

Abstract
This paper presents a Built-In Test (BIT) scheme intended for detection of nonlinearities, classification of the form of nonlinearity and evaluation of the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the signal under test, without using expensive automatic test equipment (ATE). The tester is based on a sigma-delta modulator located on a board and artificial neural networks implemented in an attached personal computer. The proposition is verified by simulation in a Matlab/Simulink environment for three classes of nonlinearities - clipping effect, crossover distortion and rate limiting. The model of the Van der Pol oscillator is used as a programmable reference source of nonlinear oscillation.

Keywords: built-in test, oscillation-based test, evaluation of nonlinearities, sigma-delta modulator, neural networks.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 300kB)
p. 61 contents

SOFT FAULT DIAGNOSIS IN ANALOG CIRCUIT BASED ON FUZZY AND DIRECTION VECTOR

Longfu Zhou, Yibing Shi, Jingyuan Tang , Yanjun Li

University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, The School of Automation Engineering, Chengdu 610054, China (zhoulf_1977@163.com, +86 28 8320 6139, ybshi@uestc.edu.cn, yjli@uestc.edu.cn)

Abstract
A basic circuit theory of fault diagnosis for analog circuits with parameter tolerance is proposed in this paper. The approach uses the direction vector of voltage increment in test nodes as a fault signature for predefined faults. A linear equation is built to locate a faulty element. On the condition that the component tolerances are taken into account, the concepts of direction vector and fuzzy analysis method are combined together to analyze a parametric fault. Examples illustrate the proposed approach and show its effectiveness.

Keywords: Analog circuit, fault diagnosis, fuzzy, direction vector.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 228kB)
p. 77 contents

ANALOG CIRCUITS DIAGNOSIS USING DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM OF SUPPLY CURRENT

Andrzej Kuczyński, Marek Ossowski

Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Theoretical Electronics, Metrology and Material Science, Stefanowskiego 18/22, 90-924 Łódź, Poland (akuczynski@p.lodz.pl, +48 44 714 9296, marek.ossowski@p.lodz.pl)

Abstract
A discrete wavelet transform based dynamic supply current analysis technique for detecting the catastrophic faults in analog circuits containing transistor is investigated in the paper. Some considerations due to a problem of fault localization using multiresolution approximation and the illustrative numerical example are presented.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, fault detection and localization, electronic circuits, discrete wavelet transform, multiresolution signal approximation.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 272kB)
p. 85 contents

KERNEL ESTIMATION OF PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION: PROPERTIES AND PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION

Bartosz Jerzman 1), Wiesław Kiciński 2)

1) Naval Information Technology Group,Arciszewskiego 25, 81-103 Gdynia, Poland (b.jerzman@mw.mil.pl)
2) Nicolaus Copernicus University, Institute of Physics,Grudziądzka 5, 87-100 Toruń, Poland (w.kicinski@fizyka.umk.pl,
+48 56 611 3343 )

Abstract
The article deals with the kernel estimation of the probability density function. The main subject of the research is the optimization of parameters of the estimator. In the particular case, the research focused on the estimation of the univariate, unimodal data representative for the normal distribution.

Keywords: probability density function, kernel estimation.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 305kB)
p. 107 contents

ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING: BEHAVIOR OF A RADIO RECEIVER CHAIN FRONT-END

Marcantonio Catelani1), Valeria L. Scarano1), Roberto Singuaroli1),Stelio Montebugnoli2), Germano Bianchi2), Federico Perini2)

1) University of Florence, via S. Marta 3, 50139, Florence, Italy (marcantonio.catelani@unifi.it , valeria.scarano@unifi.it +39 055 4796377/ 393)
2) Istituto di Radioastronomia- INAF, via Fiorentina 3508/B, 40060, Medicina (Bo), Italy (s.montebugnoli@ira.inaf.it , g.bianchi@ira.inaf.it , f.perini@ira.inaf.it)

Abstract
The proposed approach has been conceived in order to test and characterize the new receivers developed for the Italian SKA (Square Kilometre Array) demonstrator, based on the re-instrumentation of part of the Northern Cross radio-telescope located in Medicina (Italy). SKA represents a new-generation radio-telescope that will have 1 km2 of effective collecting area. It can be considered as the most sensitive radio-telescope ever built that allows a deeper knowledge of the universe. In order to guarantee the implementation of a reliable radio-receiver chain, we proposed to test the front-end that will be installed in the focal line of the antenna. The front-end has turned out as the most critical subsystem of the radio-receiver chain from a preliminary reliability analysis reported in [1]. For this reason, in the paper some results are obtained by vibration tests as well as shock and water tests are presented in order to prove the performance of the circuit under test (CUT) in particular environmental conditions.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 269kB)
p. 117 contents

A HELMHOLTZ COIL FOR HIGH FREQUENCY HIGH FIELD INTENSITY APPLICATIONS

Stefan Cirulo, Andrea Mariscotti, Angelo Vicava

Universita di Genova, Dipartimento Ingegneria Elettrica, Via all'Opera Pia 11A, 16145 Genova, Italy (andrea.mariscotti@unige.it, +39 01 035 32169, stefano.cirulo@unige.it, angelo.vicava@unige.it)

Abstract
In this work a general introduction to Helmholtz coil is presented and then attention is drawn to the implementation of a wideband (50 kHz) coil for applications requiring high magnetic flux density (up to a few mT) for sensor calibration, immunity tests and exposure of biological specimens. Experimental characterization confirms that field uniformity is quite good: dispersion is within 1.5% and 0.35% inside cubic volumes of 25% and 10% of the coil side respectively for the larger spacing; the measured impedance and the self resonance frequency are in accordance with the proposed simplified model; the magnetic field expanded uncertainty with k=2 is less than 0.5%.

Keywords: Helmholtz coils, magnetic measurements, calibration, uncertainty, stray capacitance.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 551kB)
p. 129 contents

IMPROVED DYNAMIC RANGE FOR MULTI-TONE SIGNAL USING MODEL-BASED PRE-DISTORTION

Carolina Luque A.1,2), Niclas Björsell1)

1) University of Gävle, ITB/Electronics, SE-801 76 Gävle, Sweden (niclas.bjorsell@hig.se, +46 26 64 8795)
2) Telefonica del Peru S.A.A, Operational engineering area, Puno-Peru (fluquea@telefonicamoviles.com.pe)

Abstract
Some test and measurement applications require higher dynamic range for multi-tone signals than a signal generator can generate. Moreover, for other applications it can be interesting to improve the performance of a "low cost" signal generator. The spectral purity of generated signals can be improved by using pre-distorted base-band signals. In this paper, two model-based pre-distorters are described, where the pre-distorters are based on a static and a dynamic model, respectively. A pre-distorter is used in order to improve the dynamic range. The results, which are based on measurements, show an improved dynamic range for a three-tone signal of approximately 10 dB and an improved ACPR of 5.7 dB for a WCDMA signal.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 251kB)
p. 143 contents

MEASUREMENT OF ARC LIGHT SPECTRUM IN THE MAG WELDING METHOD

Marek Stanisław Węglowski

Institute of Welding , Błogosławionego Czesława 16/18, 44-100 Gliwice , Poland (Marek.Weglowski@is.gliwice.pl, +48 32 33-58 236)

Abstract
Welding arc light can be seen as a signal carrying essential information about the welding process and exploited in the monitoring of the welding process. Results of experimental research on the radiation of the welding arc in the Metal Active Gas (MAG) welding method are presented for an industrial platform. The methodology of calculation of the spectrophotometer spectral response is presented. The range of the tested wavelengths has been limited to visible radiation of the welding arc in the range of 340-500 nm. The conditions of arc burning were modified by changing the welding parameters. During experiments the welding current was changed in the range of 104-235 A. The analysis of the spectrum of the radiation of the welding arc is investigated. This method can be useful for the monitoring of arc welding and laser welding processes.

Keywords: MAG welding, monitoring, arc light emission, spectrophotometer card.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 2545kB)
p. 161 contents

METHODS FOR ECONOMICAL TEST OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS ADCS

Josef Vedral, Pavel Fexa, Jan Svatoš

Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Measurements, Technicka 2, CZ 16627, Prague 6, Czech Republic (vedral@fel.cvut.cz, +420 2 2435 2182, fexap1@fel.cvut.cz, svatoj1@fel.cvut.cz)

Abstract
This paper describes two methods for economical test of dynamic parameters ADCs. First method is Exponential Fit Test, second method is Wobbler Test. Common testing methods are mentioned as far the accuracy and time necessary for the complete test are concerned. The tests for fast evaluation of the dependence of an effective number of bits on frequency of input signal are described and the comparison of proposed method with the standard methods is given. The suitable area of proposed method application is "each-piece" factory testing requiring extremely short time testing.

Keywords: ADC Test, Exponentional Fit Test, Wobbler Test, Effective Number of Bits.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 197kB)
p. 171 contents

PSPICE MODEL FOR SIMULATING THE GIANT MAGNETOIMPEDANCE EFFECT IN MAGNETIC AMORPHOUS WIRES

Cristian Fosalau, Catalin Damian, Cristian Zeta

"Gh.Asachi" Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bd. D.Mangeron 53, Iasi, 700050, Romania (cfosalau@ee.tuiasi.ro, +40 232 278 683, cdamian@ee.tuiasi.ro, czet@ee.tuiasi.ro)

Abstract
The paper presents an electrical model developed for Pspice simulation of the behavior of the magnetic amorphous wires (MAW) working under the Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect. The model was developed in order to facilitate the design of the signal conditioning circuitry belonging to the new category of transducers whose sensitive element is based on the GMI effect. The model is a complex one, owing to the fact that the effect is influenced by many internal or external factors, whose actions have to be taken into consideration. In the paper, an example on how the model can be applied to simulate a Colpitts oscillator is given next to its presentation and analysis.

Keywords: amorphous wire, giant magnetoimpedance effect, Pspice model, magnetic sensor.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 265kB)
p. 183 contents

A TEMPERATURE VARIABLE HIGH ACCURACY 10 KΩ RESISTOR

Pier Paolo Capra, Cristina Cassiago, Flavio Galliana, Milena Astrua

National Institute of Metrological Research, str. delle Cacce, 91 - 10135 Turrin, Italy (p.capra@inrim.it, c.cassiago@inrim.it, f.galliana@inrim.it, +39 011 3919448 m.astrua@inrim.it)

Abstract
A temperature-variable high accuracy (TVHAR) 10 kΩ resistor has been developed at the National Institute of Metrological Research, (INRIM), in order to transfer the traceability to high accuracy multifunction instruments used in the accredited calibration laboratories. The TVHAR consists of ten 100 kΩ nominal value resistors inserted in a copper block and connected in a parallel configuration. The thermal stability of the copper block is obtained with a temperature controller. In this paper details of the development of the TVHAR and of its thermal behaviour are reported . From preliminary results its relative short-time stability (2h) is on the order of a few parts in 10-8, a negligible temperature coefficient around 23 °C and a power coefficient on the order of -4×10-6/W.

© 2009 Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved

Full paper (PDF, 797kB)